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Changes in Macro- and Micro-Contexts and Earnings Among the most noticable modifications in the macro- and micro-contexts beyond the home’s direct control was the closure of physical workplaces. In Germany, about 30% of participants were affected by it, in Denmark more than 40%, and in Slovenia more than 70% of the respondents were impacted.

001) is also mirrored in the number of homes who experienced an earnings loss due to the pandemic. Overall, only 9% of Denmark’s sample families experienced income loss, 23% in Germany, but more than 50% in Slovenia (Z-test for comparison of percentages, p < 0. 001). Although German families reported fairly higher income gain than the other 2 countries, all three nations experienced substantially more income loss than earnings gain.

Food Hardship and Anxiety Table 3 likewise reveals the changes between in the past and throughout COVID-19 reported by the sample households in terms of missed meals and anxiety about obtaining food. Relating to missed meals, there was little change in between before and during in all 3 countries. Concerning stress and anxiety about acquiring food, there was significant increase from before to throughout (Z-test for comparison of percentages, p < 0.

Changes in Food-Related Behaviors Frequency of Food Shopping Our data clearly reveals that the mean frequency of food shopping significantly decreased throughout the pandemic compared to prior to (paired-samples t-tests, p < 0. 001; see Supplementary Figure 1). This impact was more noticable for fresh food compared to non-fresh food (Supplemental Figure 1).

Special Issue : Globalization of Western Food Culture

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Surprisingly, these numbers were significantly lower in Denmark and Germany (Z-tests for contrast of proportions, p < 0. 05), where only 2730% (DK) and 2028% (DE) of respondents reported a decrease in shopping frequency of fresh food, and 23% (DK) and 16% (DE) for non-fresh food. To put it simply, the majority of respondents from Denmark and Germany did not minimize their shopping frequency.

01 except for dairy in DK with p < 0. 05 and dairy in DE p < 0. 1). The intake frequencies of non-fresh food, by contrast, significantly increased in Denmark and Germany in the categories of ready-made meals, sweet treats (cake & biscuits, sweets & chocolate), and alcohols, and in Germany, the mean intake frequency of canned food also increased (all effects substantial at the level p < 0.

05). In Slovenia, the mean intake frequencies of non-fresh food did not substantially alter except for ready-made meals where a substantial decrease (p < 0. 01) was observed. Nevertheless, the comparison of mean consumption frequencies does not enable insights into the proportions of people who changed their consumption frequencies during the pandemic compared to before, and it masks the following interesting observations.

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Some individuals decreased, others increased, and yet others did not change their usage frequency (see Figure 2). In some classifications, these diverging trends “counteracted” each other so that the mean usage frequency did not considerably change. Our observation of diverging patterns in food consumption modifications are unique insights which can not be discovered by looking at aggregated data like trends in retail sales or changes in mean intake frequencies.

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Depending on the food category, Www.Agriverdesa.It in between 15 and 42% of customers altered their intake frequency throughout the pandemic compared to before (Figure 2). Table 4 maps the modifications in food intake by category. In general, the significantly highest percentages of individuals who altered usage frequencies were observed in Slovenia (Z-tests for contrast of percentages, p < 0.

Rates of change in food consumption frequency by food category. Remarkably, there are fantastic resemblances between the 3 countries regarding the food classifications with the highest and lowest rates of modification (by rate of modification we suggest the combined proportions of individuals who increased or decreased their consumption). In all three countries, the highest rates of change were observed in the classifications of frozen food, canned food, and cake & biscuits, while bread, dairy items, and alcohols were among the classifications with the lowest rates of modification (Table 4).

Surprisingly, only a little proportion of participants did not report any modifications in eating frequency (15% in DK; 14% in DE; 8% in SI). About half of the participants in Denmark and Germany and two-thirds in Slovenia reported modifications in three or more product categories. Changes in 5 or more item classifications were reported by 17% of the participants in Denmark, 24% in Germany and 35% in Slovenia.

The result referral category was the group of people who did not change their consumption frequency (in Figure 2 displayed in gray color). The model fit differed substantially throughout the different food classifications (Table 5) and was generally “moderate” or “great” for fresh food, and rather “low” for non-fresh food (apart from a couple of exceptions).

Special Issue : Globalization of Western Food Culture

It is for that reason not surprising that the design fit was low in some food classifications. The variance not explained by the models can be credited to elements not controlled for, primary distinctions in personal food values and strategies (such as health or convenience orientation, which were not consisted of as predictors in the models in order to restrict the predictors to a workable number).

The design outcomes are summed up in Tables 68 (the full model results are supplied in the Supplementary Tables 24). The rest of the area is organized according to the independent variables examined in the MNL regression models. The effects pointed out in the text are substantial at the level p < 0.

05, or p < 0. 1 (see Tables 68 for level of significance). Elements substantially associated to changes in food usage frequency DENMARK. Factors considerably associated to modifications in food intake frequency GERMANY. Factors considerably related to changes in food usage frequency SLOVENIA. Modifications in Shopping Frequency Throughout the three study nations, a reduction in shopping frequency was substantially associated to a decline in fresh food consumption, with small variations between the study countries regarding the types of fresh food affected: vegetables and fruit (all nations), meat (DE, DK), fish (DE, DK), and dairy (DK, SI).

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Food, Culture & Society, Volume 25, Issue 2 (2022)

Interestingly, a decrease in shopping frequency was likewise considerably associated to a boost in sweet treats in all 3 countries (sugary foods & chocolate: all countries; cake & biscuits: DE, DK). Regarding the consumption of bread and alcohol, we observed opposite effects between the research study nations. While a decline in shopping frequency was considerably related to a decrease in bread usage in Slovenia, it was considerably associated to an increase in bread consumption in Germany.

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COVID-19 Danger Understanding The level of viewed risk and stress and anxiety of COVID-19 (hereafter referred to as “COVID-19 threat perception”) had substantial effects on food consumption in all of the three nations, but with interesting differences in between Denmark and Https://Jungleeats.Com/Changes-In-Food-Consumption-During-The-Covid/ Germany on the one hand, and Slovenia on the other hand. In Denmark and Germany, the intake of fresh vegetables and fruit was substantially related to COVID-19 danger perception.

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Similarly, lower levels of COVID-19 threat perception were connected with a higher possibility of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in Germany. These patterns remain in contradiction to our preliminary assumption, according to which individuals who are nervous about the COVID-19 infection might attempt to enhance their body immune system through increased levels of vegetables and fruit consumption.

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