Food: Identity of Culture and Religion, ResearchGate

The Connection Between Food, Culture & Society

Modifications in Macro- and Micro-Contexts and Earnings Among the most pronounced modifications in the macro- and micro-contexts beyond the family’s direct control was the closure of physical work environments. In Germany, about 30% of participants were impacted by it, in Denmark more than 40%, and in Slovenia more than 70% of the participants were affected.

001) is also mirrored in the number of homes who experienced an earnings loss due to the pandemic. In general, only 9% of Denmark’s sample families skilled earnings loss, 23% in Germany, however more than 50% in Slovenia (Z-test for comparison of percentages, p < 0. 001). Although German families reported reasonably greater income gain than the other two nations, all three nations experienced significantly more income loss than income gain.

Food Poverty and Anxiety Table 3 likewise shows the changes in between before and during COVID-19 reported by the sample households in regards to missed out on meals and stress and anxiety about obtaining food. Regarding missed meals, there was little change in between before and throughout in all 3 countries. Concerning anxiety about getting food, there was considerable boost from before to during (Z-test for contrast of percentages, p < 0.

Changes in Food-Related Behaviors Frequency of Food Shopping Our information plainly shows that the mean frequency of food shopping significantly decreased during the pandemic compared to before (paired-samples t-tests, p < 0. 001; see Supplementary Figure 1). This impact was more pronounced for fresh food compared to non-fresh food (Supplemental Figure 1).

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Surprisingly, these numbers were considerably lower in Denmark and Germany (Z-tests for contrast of percentages, p < 0. 05), where only 2730% (DK) and 2028% (DE) of participants reported a decline in shopping frequency of fresh food, and 23% (DK) and 16% (DE) for non-fresh food. To put it simply, the bulk of participants from Denmark and Germany did not minimize their shopping frequency.

01 except for dairy in DK with p < 0. 05 and dairy in DE p < 0. 1). The consumption frequencies of non-fresh food, Https://gun-Mart.Com/community/profile/hoseasotelo987/ by contrast, significantly increased in Denmark and Germany in the classifications of ready-made meals, sweet snacks (cake & biscuits, sugary foods & chocolate), and alcoholic drinks, and in Germany, the mean consumption frequency of canned food also increased (all results significant at the level p < 0.

05). In Slovenia, the mean usage frequencies of non-fresh food did not substantially change except for ready-made meals where a substantial reduction (p < 0. 01) was observed. Nevertheless, the contrast of mean usage frequencies does not enable insights into the proportions of people who changed their usage frequencies during the pandemic compared to before, and it masks the following interesting observations.


Some individuals reduced, others increased, and yet others did not change their intake frequency (see Figure 2). In some classifications, these diverging patterns “counteracted” each other so that the mean intake frequency did not significantly change. Our observation of diverging trends in food usage changes are novel insights which can not be found by looking at aggregated information like patterns in retail sales or modifications in mean usage frequencies.

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Depending upon the food category, Https://Prachiudyog.Com/ between 15 and 42% of consumers changed their intake frequency throughout the pandemic compared to prior to (Figure 2). Table 4 maps the changes in food consumption by category. In general, the considerably greatest percentages of individuals who changed usage frequencies were observed in Slovenia (Z-tests for comparison of proportions, p < 0.

Rates of modification in food consumption frequency by food category. Remarkably, there are terrific similarities between the three nations regarding the food classifications with the greatest and least expensive rates of modification (by rate of modification we mean the combined proportions of people who increased or decreased their usage). In all 3 nations, the highest rates of change were observed in the classifications of frozen food, canned food, and cake & biscuits, while bread, dairy items, and alcohols were amongst the categories with the most affordable rates of change (Table 4).

Interestingly, just a small percentage of respondents did not report any changes in eating frequency (15% in DK; 14% in DE; 8% in SI). About half of the respondents in Denmark and Germany and two-thirds in Slovenia reported changes in three or more product classifications. Modifications in 5 or more item categories were reported by 17% of the participants in Denmark, 24% in Germany and 35% in Slovenia.

The outcome referral category was the group of individuals who did not change their consumption frequency (in Figure 2 displayed in gray color). The design fit varied considerably across the various food classifications (Table 5) and was normally “moderate” or “excellent” for fresh food, and rather “low” for non-fresh food (apart from a few exceptions).

Food, Culture & Society, Volume 25, Issue 2 (2022)

It is therefore not surprising that the design fit was low in some food categories. The variance not discussed by the models can be credited to factors not controlled for, foremost differences in personal food worths and techniques (such as health or benefit orientation, which were not consisted of as predictors in the designs in order to limit the predictors to a workable number).

The design results are summed up in Tables 68 (the full model results are offered in the Supplementary Tables 24). The remainder of the area is organized according to the independent variables analyzed in the MNL regression models. The impacts discussed in the text are significant at the level p < 0.

05, or p < 0. 1 (see Tables 68 for level of significance). Aspects considerably related to changes in food intake frequency DENMARK. Aspects substantially associated to modifications in food intake frequency GERMANY. Factors significantly associated to modifications in food usage frequency SLOVENIA. Modifications in Shopping Frequency Across the three study countries, a reduction in shopping frequency was considerably related to a reduction in fresh food consumption, with minor variations in between the study countries concerning the kinds of fresh food affected: fruit and vegetables (all nations), meat (DE, DK), fish (DE, DK), and dairy (DK, SI).

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Interestingly, a reduction in shopping frequency was likewise considerably related to an increase in sweet treats in all three countries (sugary foods & chocolate: all countries; cake & biscuits: DE, DK). Relating to the intake of bread and alcohol, we observed opposite effects in between the study nations. While a decrease in shopping frequency was substantially related to a decrease in bread consumption in Slovenia, it was considerably associated to a boost in bread usage in Germany.

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COVID-19 Risk Perception The level of perceived threat and stress and anxiety of COVID-19 (hereafter referred to as “COVID-19 risk perception”) had substantial impacts on food consumption in all of the three nations, but with intriguing distinctions between Denmark and Germany on the one hand, and Slovenia on the other hand. In Denmark and Germany, the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruit was substantially related to COVID-19 danger understanding.

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Likewise, lower levels of COVID-19 threat understanding were connected with a greater probability of increasing vegetables and fruit consumption in Germany. These trends are in contradiction to our initial presumption, according to which individuals who are anxious about the COVID-19 infection might attempt to strengthen their body immune system through increased levels of vegetables and fruit usage.

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